A. Expanding the Reach of National Jurisdiction
1. United States v. Alvarez-Machain (U.S. Supreme Court)
2. R v. HORSEFERRY ROAD MAGISTRATES’ COURT, Ex parte BENNETT (the United Kingdom)
3. Civilian contractors in war:
a. “The Judgment Gap: In a case like the Blackwater shootings, there are many laws but more obstacles” , New York Times, Oct. 11, 2007.
b. Order 17 , Iraq Transitional Administration Law, Section 4 (Contractor Immunity under Iraq law)
c. Military Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act , 18 U.S.C. 3261
d. Civilian Workers Could Face Court Martial , Financial Times, Jan. 10, 2007.
B. Removing National Jurisdiction
1. Extraordinary Renditions
a. Center for Human Rights and Global Justice (NYU Law),Torture by Proxy : Memo prepared for All Party Parliamentary Group on Extraordinary Rendition.
b. CIA Holds Terror Suspects in Secret Prisons – Debate is Growing Within Agency About Legality and Morality of Overseas Systems Set up After 9/11 , Washington Post, November 2, 2005
c. Executive Order on Ensuring Lawful Interrogations
2. Note on Hamdi v. Rumsfeld (2004)
A. Non-citizens and the Enforcement of International Law in U.S. Courts
1. The Alien Tort Claims Act: Sosa v. Alvarez Machain , 542 U.S. 692 (2004)
2. Torture Victims Protection Act , 28 U.S.C. 1350
B. Universal Jurisdiction
2. Regina v. Bartle, ex. p. Pinochet (House of Lords, 1999)
4. Commentary on Universal Jurisdiction
a. Immunity Versus Human Rights: The Pinochet Case by Andrea Bianchi (Read only Second Part—Are Municipal Courts a Proper Forum for Prosecuting Individual Crimes of International Law?)
b. Henry Kissinger and Universal Jurisdiction
c. The Genocide Accountability Act of December 2007 (US).
d. Germany arrests Rwandan official, November 2008.
A. Military Commissions versus Federal Courts in the United States
1. Please review Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, Parts I and VI (US Supreme Court, June 2006, in Unit IV materials).
2. Military Commissions Act of 2006
B. Sanctions Against Individuals and Organizations
1. Legal Foundation
2. European Union Cases:
a. Background: Grainne de Burca, The European Court of Justice and the International Legal Order after Kadi, Harvard International Law Journal, Vol. 1, No. 51, 2009
b. EC Regulation 881/2002
c. Kadi v Council of European Union, European Court of Justice decision of 3 Sept 2008
3. Rosemary Foot, The United Nations, Counter Terrorism, and Human Rights: Institutional Adaptation and Embedded Ideas , 29 Hum. Rights Q. 489 (2007)